Department of Foreign Relations
Kurdistan Regional Government
Tue, 02 Sep 2014 21:48:52

Kurdistan Regional Government
Kurdistan Regional Government, Council of Ministers Building, Erbil

The Kurdistan Region is a federated region in Iraq. Its main institutions are the Kurdistan Regional Government, the Kurdistan Region Presidency, and the Kurdistan Parliament. As stipulated in Iraq’s federal constitution, Kurdistan’s institutions exercise legislative and executive authority in many areas, including allocating the Regional budget, police and security, education and health policies, natural resource management and infrastructural development.  The Kurdistan Regional Government also works together with the federal Iraqi government to ensure the application of the Iraqi Constitution, and to cooperate with the federal government on other areas which concern all regions of Iraq.


Kurdistan Regional Government

The democratically elected Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) exercises executive power according to the Kurdistan Region’s laws, as enacted by the Kurdistan Parliament.

The current government, led by Prime Minister Nechirvan Barzani, assumed office on 5 April 2012. His Deputy is Mr Imad Ahmad Sayfour.

The government coalition consists of a variety of political parties, reflecting the political, religious and ethnic diversity of the Region’s people, who are Kurds, Turkmen, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Syriac, Yazidis and others living together in harmony and tolerance.

The cabinet is made up of members of the Kurdistani List coalition, which won the region’s parliamentary elections in July 2009, together with other parties. The coalition government consists of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), Kurdistan Islamic Movement, the Chaldean Assyrian Syriac Council, Turkmen representatives, Communists and Socialists. The government has 19 cabinet ministries.

The KRG is based in Erbil, the capital of the Kurdistan Region, and it currently administers the governorates of Erbil, Suleimaniah and Duhok.

The KRG’s vision and policies are outlined below. For news and additional information, please visit the KRG’s website at: www.krg.org


Kurdistan Region Presidency

The Kurdistan Region Presidency (KRP) was established as an institution by the Kurdistan Parliament in 2005. The President of the Kurdistan Region has the highest executive authority. He or she is elected by secret ballot in a popular vote every four years and can stand for election for a second term.

Mr Masoud Barzani, the current President, was elected as the Kurdistan Region's first President on 31 January 2005 by the Kurdistan Parliament, with Mr Kosrat Rasul Ali as the Vice President.

In July of 2009, Mr Masoud Barzani was re-elected by secret popular ballot by the people of the Kurdistan Region with 70% of the vote. The President’s secretariat, called the Diwan, is headed by his Chief of Staff.

The President represents the people of Kurdistan at national and international levels, and he oversees relations and coordination between the Region and the federal authorities of Iraq. He also represents the people of Kurdistan at Iraq’s Political Council for National Security, and in negotiations and consultations with other parties in Iraq.

He is responsible for approving the KRG Prime Minister’s special appointments and promotions, and for ratifying all laws passed by the Kurdistan Parliament. He has the power to return any law passed by the Parliament once only for further debate and amendment.

For news and additional information, please visit the President’s website at: www.krp.org


Kurdistan Parliament

The Kurdistan Parliament is the Kurdistan Region’s democratically elected legislature. The parliament consists of one elected chamber.

Functions of the Kurdistan Parliament

The three main functions of the parliament are:

  • to examine proposals for new laws;
  • to scrutinise government policy and administration;
  • to debate the major issues of the day.


Founding principles

The founding principles of the Kurdistan Parliament are liberty, pluralism, accountability, openness and the representation of all peoples in the Kurdistan Region.

History of the Kurdistan Parliament

The parliament was established in 1992, in the first free and fair elections ever held in the Kurdistan Region or in any part of Iraq.

To protect civilians from attacks by Iraqi military forces following the 1991 Gulf War, the US, UK and France initiated a no-fly zone above the 36th line of latitude which cuts across Kurdistan. On the ground, a security zone was established by military forces from eleven countries. These no-fly and security zones strongly supported and encouraged refugees, including those who had left in the 1970s, to return to their homes.

Later in 1991, Saddam Hussein withdrew his forces and his administration, including the national flag, from parts of the Kurdistan Region. Compounding the hardship caused by an international UN embargo on Iraq, Saddam Hussein enforced an additional internal embargo on the region that stopped food and fuel supplies, disconnected electrical power and prevented the movement of people to other parts of the country.

Faced with the administrative vacuum and double embargo, the Kurdistan Front, an alliance of diverse political groups in the Kurdistan Region, decided to hold a general election. Their goal was to establish an administration to provide for essential public services and to meet the basic needs of the people. The population also expressed a strong desire to choose its representatives. The election, held on 19 May 1992, was the first free and fair parliamentary election in the history of Iraq. A minimum 7% threshold was set for representation in the Assembly. Voter turnout was very high and the elections were deemed to be free, fair, and democratic by international observers. After decades of dictatorship, the people in Kurdistan were able to vote for their representatives for the first time in their history.

This regional election led to the formation of the first Kurdistan National Assembly and the establishment of the Kurdistan Regional Government. The leadership and the people of the Kurdistan Region decided to remain part of Iraq, and to adopt and abide by all national laws except for those that violated human and universal rights. By 15 July 1992, the Kurdistan National Assembly had convened. Law No. 1, the first law passed by the assembly, establishing it as the Region’s legislature.

To date there have been three parliaments, following elections in 1992, 2005 and in July 2009. In 2009 the Kurdistan National Assembly was renamed the Kurdistan Parliament.

Elections

Elections for the Kurdistan Parliament are held at least every four calendar years, (as stipulated in Article 8 of the Kurdistan Electoral Law). The last parliamentary elections were held on 25 July 2009.

Anyone aged 18 or over who is a citizen of the Kurdistan Region and is on the electoral register is eligible to vote in a direct, universal and secret ballot. Elections for the Kurdistan Parliament are based on a closed party-list proportional representation system. Electors vote for a party’s list of candidates, rather than for an individual candidate. After the election results are announced, each party is allocated seats in proportion to the number of votes it received, using the ranking order of candidates on its list.

Structure of the Parliament: Ensuring broad representation

There are 111 seats in the Assembly (as stipulated in Law No. 1 passed in 1992). The Kurdistan Parliament is lead by the Speaker, Dr Arslan Bayez, who is assisted in his duties by the Deputy Speaker, Hassan Mohammed.

In February 2009 several amendments were made to the Kurdistan election law to increase inclusiveness of all groups. The minimum age of parliamentary candidates was lowered from 30 to 25. While seats had already been reserved in previous elections for minority communities, for the Christian and Turkmen communities this was increased to five seats each. The legal minimum quota of women MPs was increased from 25 percent to 30 percent of the legislature. In the current parliament, 36 of the 111 MPs are women.

Powers of the Kurdistan Parliament

As provided in the federal constitution of Iraq [1], parliament has considerable power to debate and legislate on policy in a wide range of areas:

  • health services
  • education and training
  • policing and security
  • the environment
  • natural resources
  • agriculture
  • housing
  • trade, industry and investment
  • social services and social affairs
  • transport and roads
  • culture and tourism
  • sport and leisure
  • ancient monuments and historic buildings


The Kurdistan Parliament shares legislative power with the federal authorities in these areas, but priority is given to the Kurdistan Parliament’s laws:

  • customs
  • electric energy and its distribution
  • general planning
  • internal water resources


In addition, under Article 121 of the Iraqi federal constitution the Kurdistan Parliament has the right to amend the application of Iraq-wide legislation that falls outside of the federal authorities’ exclusive powers.

Landmark legislation passed by the Kurdistan Parliament

The Kurdistan Parliament has passed several laws that have contributed to the Region’s social and economic progress. These include:

  • passing a modern and open investment law;
  • passing a progressive hydrocarbons (oil and gas) law for the Kurdistan Region;
  • significantly increasing the prison sentence for those committing so-called honour killings, which were previously given minimum sentences.
  • strict limits on the practice of polygamy.


The Kurdistan Parliament approved by a large majority a constitution for the Kurdistan Region, and intends to put it to a referendum in the future.

Members of the Kurdistan Parliament

The 111 MPs in the Kurdistan parliament represent the following political lists and parties:

  • Kurdistan List: 59 MPs. (Kurdistan Democratic Party and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan)
  • Change List: 23 MPs
  • Reform and Services List: 13 MPs (Kurdistan Islamic Union, Islamic Group in Kurdistan, Kurdistan Socialist Democratic Party, Future Party)
  • Islamic Movement List: 2 MPs
  • Freedom and Social Justice List: 1 MP (Kurdistan Communist Party, Kurdistan Toilers Party, Kurdistan Independent Work Party, Kurdistan Pro-Democratic Party, Democratic Movement of Kurdistan People).
  • Independent: 2


Parliamentary seats reserved for minority groups:

  • Turkoman Democratic Movement: 3 MPs
  • Turkoman Reform List: 1 MP
  • Turkoman Erbil List: 1 MP
  • Chaldean Assyrian Syriac Council: 3 MPs
  • Al-Rafidain List: 2 MPs
  • 1 Armenian MP: Aram Shahin Dawood Bakoyian.


Committees

The Kurdistan National Assembly has a number of standing committees which work on the following areas:

  • Legal affairs
  • Finance and economic affairs
  • Home affairs
  • Agriculture and irrigation
  • General and higher education
  • Health and social affairs
  • Relations and culture
  • Endowments and religious affairs
  • Transport, communication and municipalities
  • Industry, energy and minerals
  • Peshmerga affairs (armed forces)
  • Human rights
  • Works and reconstruction
  • Women’s rights
  • Article 140 of the Iraqi Constitution


[1] These powers are granted in the federal constitution of Iraq, articles 114, 115, 117, 120, 121, 126 and 141.


The Kurdistan Region’s provincial authorities

The Kurdistan Region comprises the three northern-most governorates or provinces of Iraq: Erbil, Suleimaniah and Duhok. Each governorate has a democratically elected 41-seat Governing Council. The provincial Governors are Mr Nawzad Hadi in Erbil, Mr Behrouz Mohammad Salih in Suleimaniah, and Mr Tamar Ramadan Fattah in Duhok.

As well as receiving funds from the Kurdistan Region’s own budget, the governorates also receive funds for provincial capital investment and infrastructure projects directly from Baghdad.  These funds are a part of the KRG’s 17% share of the federal budget.